Domestic Relations Law 252
DRL 252: Effect of pendency of action for divorce, separation or annulment on petition for order of protection
Effect of pendency of action for divorce, separation or annulment on petition for order of protection
1. In an action for divorce, separation or annulment or in an action to declare the nullity of a void marriage in the supreme court, the supreme court or the family court shall entertain an application for an order of protection or temporary order of protection by either party. Such an order may require any party:
(a) to stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the child, other parent or any other party, and to stay away from any other specific location designated by the court;
(b) to permit a parent, or a person entitled to visitation by a court order or a separation agreement, to visit the child at stated periods;
(c) to refrain from committing a family offense, as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of the criminal procedure law , or any criminal offense against such child or against the other parent or against any person to whom custody of the child is awarded or from harassing, intimidating or threatening such persons;
(d) to permit a designated party to enter the residence during a specified period of time in order to remove personal belongings not in issue in a proceeding or action under this chapter or the family court act;
(e) to refrain from acts of commission or omission that create an unreasonable risk to the health, safety or welfare of a child;
(f) to pay the reasonable counsel fees and disbursements involved in obtaining or enforcing the order of the person who is protected by such order if such order is issued or enforced;
(g) to refrain from intentionally injuring or killing, without justification, any companion animal the respondent knows to be owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by the person protected by the order or a minor child residing in such person's household. “Companion animal,” as used in this section, shall have the same meaning as in subdivision five of section three hundred fifty of the agriculture and markets law ;
(h)(1) to promptly return specified identification documents to the protected party, in whose favor the order of protection or temporary order of protection is issued; provided, however, that such order may: (A) include any appropriate provision designed to ensure that any such document is available for use as evidence in this proceeding, and available if necessary for legitimate use by the party against whom such order is issued; and (B) specify the manner in which such return shall be accomplished.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph, “identification document” shall mean any of the following: (A) exclusively in the name of the protected party: birth certificate, passport, social security card, health insurance or other benefits card, a card or document used to access bank, credit or other financial accounts or records, tax returns, any driver's license, and immigration documents including but not limited to a United States permanent resident card and employment authorization document; and (B) upon motion and after notice and an opportunity to be heard, any of the following, including those that may reflect joint use or ownership, that the court determines are necessary and are appropriately transferred to the protected party: any card or document used to access bank, credit or other financial accounts or records, tax returns, and any other identifying cards and documents; and
(i) to observe such other conditions as are necessary to further the purposes of protection.
1-a. Translation and interpretation of orders of protection. The office of court administration shall, in accordance with paragraph (t) of subdivision two of section two hundred twelve of the judiciary law , ensure that a court order of protection or temporary order of protection is translated in writing into the appropriate language for a party to a proceeding where the court has appointed an interpreter. The office of court administration shall ensure that the standard language of the office of court administration order of protection and temporary order of protection forms shall be translated in writing in the languages most frequently used in the courts of each judicial department in accordance with paragraph (t) of subdivision two of section two hundred twelve of the judiciary law . A copy of the written translation shall be given to each party in the proceeding, along with the original order or temporary order of protection issued in English. A copy of this written translation shall also be included as part of the record of the proceeding. The court shall read the essential terms and conditions of the order aloud on the record and direct the court appointed interpreter to interpret the same terms and conditions. Such written translation or interpretation shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the order. In every case a party to a proceeding shall be provided with an English copy of any court order of protection or temporary order of protection issued. The authority provided herein shall be in addition to and shall not be deemed to diminish or reduce any rights of the parties under existing law.
2. An order of protection entered pursuant to this subdivision shall bear in a conspicuous manner, on the front page of said order, the language “Order of protection issued pursuant to section two hundred fifty-two of the domestic relations law ”. The order of protection shall also contain the following notice: “This order of protection will remain in effect even if the protected party has, or consents to have, contact or communication with the party against whom the order is issued. This order of protection can only be modified or terminated by the court. The protected party cannot be held to violate this order nor be arrested for violating this order.”. The absence of such language shall not affect the validity of such order. The presentation of a copy of such an order to any peace officer acting pursuant to his or her special duties, or police officer, shall constitute authority, for that officer to arrest a person when that person has violated the terms of such an order, and bring such person before the court and, otherwise, so far as lies within the officer's power, to aid in securing the protection such order was intended to afford.
2-a. If the court that issued an order of protection or temporary order of protection under this section or warrant in connection thereto is not in session when an arrest is made for an alleged violation of the order or upon a warrant issued in connection with such violation, the arrested person shall be brought before a local criminal court in the county of arrest or in the county in which such warrant is returnable pursuant to article one hundred twenty of the criminal procedure law and arraigned by such court. Such local criminal court shall order the commitment of the arrested person to the custody of the sheriff, admit to, fix or accept bail, or release the arrested person on his or her recognizance pending appearance in the court that issued the order of protection, temporary order of protection or warrant. In making such order, such local criminal court shall consider the bail recommendations, if any, made by the supreme or family court as indicated on the warrant or certificate of warrant. Unless the petitioner or complainant requests otherwise, the court, in addition to scheduling further criminal proceedings, if any, regarding such alleged family offense or violation allegation, shall make such matter returnable in the supreme or family court, as applicable, on the next day such court is in session.
3. An order of protection entered pursuant to this subdivision may be made in the final judgment in any matrimonial action, or by one or more orders from time to time before or subsequent to final judgment, or by both such order or orders and the final judgment. The order of protection may remain in effect after entry of a final matrimonial judgment and during the minority of any child whose custody or visitation is the subject of a provision of a final judgment or any order. An order of protection may be entered notwithstanding that the court for any reason whatsoever, other than lack of jurisdiction, refuses to grant the relief requested in the action or proceeding.
4. No order of protection may direct any party to observe conditions of behavior unless: (i) the party requesting the order of protection has served and filed an action, proceeding, counterclaim or written motion and, (ii) the court has made a finding on the record that such party is entitled to issuance of the order of protection which may result from a judicial finding of fact, judicial acceptance of an admission by the party against whom the order was issued or judicial finding that the party against whom the order is issued has given knowing, intelligent and voluntary consent to its issuance. The provisions of this subdivision shall not preclude the court from issuing a temporary order of protection upon the court's own motion or where a motion for such relief is made to the court, for good cause shown.
5. Except with respect to enforcement pursuant to a criminal prosecution under article two hundred fifteen of the penal law, the supreme court may provide in an order made pursuant to this section that the order may be enforced or modified only in the supreme court. If the supreme court so provides, the family court may not entertain an application to enforce or modify such an order of the supreme court.
6. In any such matrimonial action however, the court may not sua sponte consolidate actions or make, vacate or modify orders of protection issued in family court involving the same parties except upon motion and with notice to the non-moving party. Such non-moving party shall be given an opportunity to be heard.
7. A valid order of protection or temporary order of protection issued by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territorial or tribal jurisdiction shall be accorded full faith and credit and enforced as if it were issued by a court within the state for as long as the order remains in effect in the issuing jurisdiction in accordance with sections two thousand two hundred sixty-five and two thousand two hundred sixty-six of title eighteen of the United States Code .
(a) An order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territorial or tribal jurisdiction shall be deemed valid if:
(i) the issuing court had personal jurisdiction over the parties and over the subject matter under the law of the issuing jurisdiction;
(ii) the person against whom the order was issued had reasonable notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to issuance of the order; provided, however, that if the order was a temporary order of protection issued in the absence of such person, that notice had been given and that an opportunity to be heard had been provided within a reasonable period of time after the issuance of the order; and
(iii) in the case of orders of protection or temporary orders of protection issued against both a petitioner and respondent, the order or portion thereof sought to be enforced was supported by: (A) a pleading requesting such order, including, but not limited to, a petition, cross-petition or counterclaim; and (B) a judicial finding that the requesting party is entitled to the issuance of the order, which may result from a judicial finding of fact, judicial acceptance of an admission by the party against whom the order was issued or judicial finding that the party against whom the order was issued had given knowing, intelligent and voluntary consent to its issuance.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of article fifty-four of the civil practice law and rules, an order of protection or temporary order of protection issued by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territorial or tribal jurisdiction, accompanied by a sworn affidavit that upon information and belief such order is in effect as written and has not been vacated or modified, may be filed without fee with the clerk of the court, who shall transmit information regarding such order to the statewide registry of orders of protection and warrants established pursuant to section two hundred twenty-one-a of the executive law ; provided, however, that such filing and registry entry shall not be required for enforcement of the order.
8. Any party moving for a temporary order of protection pursuant to this subdivision during hours when the court is open shall be entitled to file such motion or pleading containing such prayer for emergency relief on the same day that such person first appears at such court, and a hearing on the motion or portion of the pleading requesting such emergency relief shall be held on the same day or the next day that the court is in session following the filing of such motion or pleading.
9. Upon issuance of an order of protection or temporary order of protection or upon a violation of such order, the court shall make a determination regarding the suspension and revocation of a license to carry, possess, repair or dispose of a firearm or firearms, ineligibility for such a license and the surrender of firearms in accordance with sections eight hundred forty-two-a and eight hundred forty-six-a of the family court act , as applicable. Upon issuance of an order of protection pursuant to this section or upon a finding of a violation thereof, the court also may direct payment of restitution in an amount not to exceed ten thousand dollars in accordance with subdivision (e) of section eight hundred forty-one of such act; provided, however, that in no case shall an order of restitution be issued where the court determines that the party against whom the order would be issued has already compensated the injured party or where such compensation is incorporated in a final judgment or settlement of the action.
9-a. The protected party in whose favor the order of protection or temporary order of protection is issued may not be held to violate an order issued in his or her favor nor may such protected party be arrested for violating such order.
10. All orders of protection and temporary orders of protection issued pursuant to this section along with any associated papers that may be served simultaneously shall be served in accordance with subdivision three-a of section two hundred forty of this article.
This section of the Domestic Relations Law is provided as part of a free educational service by J. Douglas Barics, attorney at law for reference only. Statutes and codes such as DRL 252 are frequently amended, and no representation is made that the above version of DRL 252 is current. Updated statutes and codes may be available at the New York State Legislature Website. No statute should be relied on without understanding controlling case law which may further interpret it. An attorney should be consulted for legal advice.
J. Douglas Barics, Esq. – Divorce, family, matrimonial, trial and appeals lawyer in Long Island, New York.